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# Grade weights, running averages, final averages, and CGPA

The final grade on a unit of study is determined by the weighting rules in the terms of study for an individual course, and is stated in the course offering.

Unless otherwise stated, all modules are internally weighted as follows: 50% of the mark derives from the average of the weekly tutorial essays (of which the lowest one mark is dropped), and 50% of the mark derives from the cumulative examination (including any modifications to it by viva voce examination).

All degree courses are weighted in proportion to the ECTS points of the component courses. For example, an MA degree composed of five taught short courses (10 ECTS each) and a dissertation (40 ECTS), would weight the grades on each component according to the number ECTS points.

# How the running average is calculated

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If a grade weight exists but no scores are applied to it, then it is not taken into account in the running average.

Scores have a weight that define their relative importance when calculating the final grade. For a given weight, a pre-final grade is calculated. It corresponds to the mean value of all scores that have the same weight, multiplied by this weight. Once all the pre-final grades are calculated, the final grade is their sum, divided by the sum of the weights.

We can describe this as a two-step calculation :

1. For each weight, calculate the mean score and multiply it by the weight.
2. Add all the previously obtained values together, and divide them by the sum of all obtained weights

### Let’s now work with an example.

We have 3 weights : $W_A$, $W_B$ and $W_C$

• $W_A$ is applied to the following scores : $S_{A1}$, $S_{A2}$ and $S_{A3}$
• $W_B$ is applied to the following score : $S_{B1}$
• $W_C$ is applied to the following scores : $S_{C1}$ and $S_{C2}$

The formula for calculating the running average grade $G$ is :

$G = \frac{\left( \frac{S_{A1} + S_{A2} + S_{A3}}{3} \times W_A \right) + \left( \frac{S_{B1}}{1} \times W_B \right) + \left( \frac{S_{C1} + S_{C2}}{2} \times W_C \right)}{W_A + W_B + W_C}$

# How the final average is calculated

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If a grade weight exists but no scores are applied to it, then it is taken into account in the final average.

The final average is calculated the same way as the running average with 1 difference: all unused but required grades will be changed to 0.

• E.g., We have 3 weights : $W_A$, $W_B$ and $W_C$
• $W_A$ has a minimum requirement of 10 instances (such as 10 assignments)
• A student has completed 8 instances
• The student will receive a 0 for the missing assignments

# Why the final CGPA can differ from the final average expressed as a percentage?

1. The final average as a percentage is the average of all prior percentage scores, weighted by the number of credits for each course
2. The final average as a GPA on the 4.0 scale is the average of all prior GPA scores, weighted by the number of credits for each course
3. In strict adherence to international conventions, The GPA scale has gaps, which means that slightly lower percentage can lead to a substantially lower GPA, and thus the final average of the GPA can be lower than the conversion of the final average percentage into a GPA score on the 4.0 scale