The final grade on a unit of study is determined by the weighting rules in the terms of study for an individual course, and is stated in the course offering.

Unless otherwise stated, all modules are internally weighted as follows: 50% of the mark derives from the average of the weekly tutorial essays (of which the lowest one mark is dropped), and 50% of the mark derives from the cumulative examination (including any modifications to it by viva voce examination).

All degree courses are weighted in proportion to the ECTS points of the component courses. For example, an MA degree composed of five taught short courses (10 ECTS each) and a dissertation (40 ECTS), would weight the grades on each component according to the number ECTS points.

# How final grades are calculated

Scores have a weight that define their relative importance when calculating the final grade. For a given weight, a pre-final grade is calculated. It corresponds to the mean value of all scores that have the same weight, multiplied by this weight. Once all the pre-final grades are calculated, the final grade is their sum, divided by the sum of the weights.

**We can describe this as a two-step calculation :**

- For each weight, calculate the mean score and multiply it by the weight.
- Add all the previously obtained values together, and divide them by the sum of all weights

### Letβs now work with an example.

We have 3 weights : , and

- is applied to the following scores : , and
- is applied to the following score :
- is applied to the following scores : and

The formula for calculating the final grade is :

If a grade weight exists but no scores are applied to it, then it is not taken into account in total average.