Referencing and footnotes

Creating scholarly footnotes and bibliographies

Referencing and Footnotes

Referencing styles varies between disciplines, so you should check with your tutor about the referencing style required for your course.

  • Examination essays, dissertations, and theses require you to use a consisten referencing system, including a bibliography of works cited.
  • Tutorial essays do not require students to submit a bibliography or to use extensive footnotes, and students are encouraged to write their tutorial essays entirely in their own words. However, tutorial essays must acknowledge the sources on which they rely and must provide quotation marks and citation information for verbatim quotes.

Three of the most widely used referencing systems are as follows:

  1. The Oxford Manual of Style
  2. The Harvard Referencing Style
  3. The Chicago Manual of Style